हार्दिक अनुरोध

यो ब्लगमा तपाईलाई स्वागत छ । ब्लगमा आउँनु भएकोमा धन्यवाद पनि । यो ब्लग केहि समय पछाडी तपाइको अगाडी चिटिक्क परेर आउँनेछ । यसैले कृपया मेरो अर्को ब्लग मा क्लिक गरेर ब्लग हेर्नुहोस् । सकेसम्म लेखहरुमा कमेन्ट पनि लेखिदिनु होला है । फेरि फेरि पनि आउँदै गर्नुहोला ।

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I.    Introduction
1.   The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, provided the fundamental principles and the programme of action for achieving sustainable development. We strongly reaffirm our commitment to the Rio principles, the full implementation of Agenda 21 and the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21. We also commit ourselves to achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the United Nations Millennium Declaration and in the outcomes of the major United Nations conferences and international agreements since 1992.

2.   The present plan of implementation will further build on the achievements made since UNCED and expedite the realization of the remaining goals. To this end, we commit ourselves to undertaking concrete actions and measures at all levels and to enhancing international cooperation, taking into account the Rio Principles, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities as set out in principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. These efforts will also promote the integration of the three components of sustainable development — economic development, social development and environmental protection — as interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars. Poverty eradication, changing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, and protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development are overarching objectives of, and essential requirements for, sustainable development.
3.   We recognize that the implementation of the outcomes of the Summit should benefit all, particularly women, youth, children and vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the implementation should involve all relevant actors through partnerships, especially between Governments of the North and South, on the one hand, and between Governments and major groups, on the other, to achieve the widely shared goals of sustainable development. As reflected in the Monterrey Consensus, such partnerships are key to pursuing sustainable development in a globalizing world.
4.   Good governance within each country and at the international level is essential for sustainable development. At the domestic level, sound environmental, social and economic policies, democratic institutions responsive to the needs of the people, the rule of law, anti-corruption measures, gender equality and an enabling environment for investment are the basis for sustainable development. As a result of globalization, external factors have become critical in determining the success or failure of developing countries in their national efforts. The gap between developed and developing countries points to the continued need for a dynamic and enabling international economic environment supportive of international cooperation, particularly in the areas of finance, technology transfer, debt and trade, and full and effective participation of developing countries in global decision-making, if the momentum for global progress towards sustainable development is to be maintained and increased.
5.   Peace, security, stability and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, as well as respect for cultural diversity, are essential for achieving sustainable development and ensuring that sustainable development benefits all.
5 bis       We acknowledge the importance of ethics for sustainable development, and therefore we emphasize the need to consider ethics in the implementation of Agenda 21.
II.  Poverty eradication
6.   Eradicating poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world today and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development, particularly for developing countries. Although each country has the primary responsibility for its own sustainable development and poverty eradication and the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be overemphasized, concerted and concrete measures are required at all levels to enable developing countries to achieve their sustainable development goals as related to the internationally agreed poverty-related targets and goals, including those contained in Agenda 21, the relevant outcomes of other United Nations conferences and the United Nations Millennium Declaration. This would include actions at all levels to:
      (a)    Halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world’s people whose income is less than $1 a day and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger and, by the same date, to halve the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water;
      (b)    Establish a world solidarity fund to eradicate poverty and to promote social and human development in the developing countries pursuant to modalities to be determined by the General Assembly, while stressing the voluntary nature of the contributions, the need to avoid duplication of existing United Nations funds, and encouraging the role of the private sector and individual citizens relative to Governments in funding the endeavours;
      (c)    Develop national programmes for sustainable development and local and community development, where appropriate within country-owned poverty reduction strategies, to promote the empowerment of people living in poverty and their organizations. These programmes should reflect their priorities and enable them to increase access to productive resources, public services and institutions, in particular land, water, employment opportunities, credit, education and health;
      (d)    Promote women’s equal access to and full participation, on the basis of equality with men, in decision-making at all levels, mainstreaming gender perspectives in all policies and strategies, eliminating all forms of violence and discrimination against women, and improving the status, health and economic welfare of women and girls through full and equal access to economic opportunity, land, credit, education and health-care services;
      (e)    Develop policies and ways and means to improve access by indigenous people and their communities to economic activities, and increase their employment through, where appropriate, such measures as training, technical assistance and credit facilities. Recognize that traditional and direct dependence on renewable resources and ecosystems, including sustainable harvesting, continues to be essential to the cultural, economic and physical well-being of indigenous people and their communities;
      (f)    Deliver basic health services for all and reduce environmental health threats, taking into account the special needs of children and the linkages between poverty, health and environment, with provision of financial resources, technical assistance and knowledge transfer to developing countries and countries with economies in transition;
      (g)    Ensure that children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling and will have equal access to all levels of education;
      (h)    Provide access to agricultural resources for people living in poverty, especially women and indigenous communities, and promote, as appropriate, land tenure arrangements that recognize and protect indigenous and common property resource management systems;
      (i)     Build basic rural infrastructure, diversify the economy and improve transportation and access to markets, market information and credit for the rural poor to support sustainable agriculture and rural development;
      (j)    Transfer basic sustainable agricultural techniques and knowledge, including natural resource management, to small and medium-scale farmers, fishers and the rural poor, especially in developing countries, including through multi-stakeholder approaches and public-private partnerships aimed at increasing agriculture production and food security;
      (k)    Increase food availability and affordability, including through harvest and food technology and management, as well as equitable and efficient distribution systems, by promoting, for example, community-based partnerships linking urban and rural people and enterprises;
      (l)     Combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought and floods through such measures as improved use of climate and weather information and forecasts, early warning systems, land and natural resource management, agricultural practices and ecosystem conservation in order to reverse current trends and minimize degradation of land and water resources, including through the provision of adequate and predictable financial resources to implement the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa, as one of the tools for poverty eradication;
      (m)   Increase access to sanitation to improve human health and reduce infant and child mortality, prioritizing water and sanitation in national sustainable development strategies and poverty reduction strategies where they exist.
7.   The provision of clean drinking water and adequate sanitation is necessary to protect human health and the environment. In this respect, we agree to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water (as outlined in the Millennium Declaration) and the proportion of people who do not have access to basic sanitation, which would include actions at all levels to:
      (a)    Develop and implement efficient household sanitation systems;
      (b)    Improve sanitation in public institutions, especially schools;
      (c)    Promote safe hygiene practices;
      (d)    Promote education and outreach focused on children, as agents of behavioural change;
      (e)    Promote affordable and socially and culturally acceptable technologies and practices;
      (f)    Develop innovative financing and partnership mechanisms;
      (g)    Integrate sanitation into water resources management strategies.
8.   Take joint actions and improve efforts to work together at all levels to improve access to reliable and affordable energy services for sustainable development sufficient to facilitate the achievement of the millennium development goals, including the goal of halving the proportion of people in poverty by 2015, and as a means to generate other important services that mitigate poverty, bearing in mind that access to energy facilitates the eradication of poverty. This would include actions at all levels to:
      (a)    Improve access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services and resources, taking into account national specificities and circumstances, through various means, such as enhanced rural electrification and decentralized energy systems, increased use of renewables, cleaner liquid and gaseous fuels and enhanced energy efficiency, by intensifying regional and international cooperation in support of national efforts, including through capacity-building, financial and technological assistance and innovative financing mechanisms, including at the micro and meso levels, recognizing the specific factors for providing access to the poor;
      (b)    Improve access to modern biomass technologies and fuelwood sources and supplies, and commercialize biomass operations, including the use of agricultural residues, in rural areas and where such practices are sustainable;
      (c)    Promote a sustainable use of biomass and, as appropriate, other renewable energies through improvement of current patterns of use, such as management of resources, more efficient use of fuelwood and new or improved products and technologies;
      (d)    Support the transition to the cleaner use of liquid and gaseous fossil fuels, where considered more environmentally sound, socially acceptable and cost-effective;
      (e)    Develop national energy policies and regulatory frameworks that will help to create the necessary economic, social and institutional conditions in the energy sector to improve access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services for sustainable development and poverty eradication in rural, peri-urban and urban areas;
      (f)    Enhance international and regional cooperation to improve access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services, as an integral part of poverty reduction programmes, by facilitating the creation of enabling environments and addressing capacity-building needs, with special attention to rural and isolated areas, as appropriate;
      (g)    Assist and facilitate on an accelerated basis, with the financial and technical assistance of developed countries, including through public-private partnerships, the access of the poor to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services, taking into account the instrumental role of developing national policies on energy for sustainable development, bearing in mind that in developing countries sharp increases in energy services are required to improve the standards of living of their populations and that energy services have positive impacts on poverty eradication and improve standards of living.
9.   Strengthen the contribution of industrial development to poverty eradication and sustainable natural resource management. This would include actions at all levels to:
      (a)    Provide assistance and mobilize resources to enhance industrial productivity and competitiveness as well as industrial development in developing countries, including the transfer of environmentally sound technologies on preferential terms, as mutually agreed;
       (b)    Provide assistance to increase income-generating employment opportunities, taking into account the International Labour Organization (ILO) Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work;
      (c)    Promote the development of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, including by means of training, education and skill enhancement, with a special focus on agro-industry as a provider of livelihoods for rural communities;
      (d)    Provide financial and technological support, as appropriate, to rural communities of developing countries to enable them to benefit from safe and sustainable livelihood opportunities in small-scale mining ventures;
      (e)    Provide support to developing countries for the development of safe low-cost technologies that provide or conserve fuel for cooking and water heating;
      (f)    Provide support for natural resource management for creating sustainable livelihoods for the poor.
10. By 2020, achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, as proposed in the “Cities without slums” initiative. This would include actions at all levels to:
      (a)    Improve access to land and property, to adequate shelter and to basic services for the urban and rural poor, with special attention to female heads of household;
      (b)    Use low-cost and sustainable materials and appropriate technologies for the construction of adequate and secure housing for the poor, with financial and technological assistance to developing countries, taking into account their culture, climate, specific social conditions and vulnerability to natural disasters;
      (c)    Increase decent employment, credit and income for the urban poor, through appropriate national policies, promoting equal opportunities for women and men;
      (d)    Remove unnecessary regulatory and other obstacles for microenterprises and the informal sector;
      (e)    Support local authorities in elaborating slum upgrading programmes within the framework of urban development plans and facilitate access, particularly for the poor, to information on housing legislation.
11. Take immediate and effective measures to eliminate the worst forms of child labour as defined in ILO Convention No. 182, and elaborate and implement strategies for the elimination of child labour that is contrary to accepted international standards.
12. Promote international cooperation to assist developing countries, upon request, in addressing child labour and its root causes, inter alia, through social and economic policies aimed at poverty conditions, while stressing that labour standards should not be used for protectionist trade purposes.

विश्वकप : कसले के जित्यो ?

विश्वकप फुटबलको १९ औ संस्करण आयोजना गर्न जब दक्षिण अफ्रिकालाई जिम्मेवारी दिइयो तब धेरैले फिफाको आलोचनात्मक समर्थन गरेको कुराले विश्वस्तरमा चर्चा पायो । तर विश्वकपको यो संस्करण सफलता पुर्वक सम्पन्न भएको छ । यसको जस फिफा र दक्षिण अफ्रिकालाई नदिरहन सकिदैन । एकदमै तामझाम साथ गरिएको समापन कार्यक्रममा अफ्रिकाको संस्कृती र विकाश दुबै देख्न पाइयो । तिनीहरुको संस्कृति हेरिरहदा मैले पनि मनमनमा विश्वकपको समापनको दिन मैदानमा हजारौको उपस्थितीमा सनाइ, मादल र लोकगीतका बाजा बजेको कल्पना गरिरहेथें । तपाईले पनि त हेर्नु भयो होला नी, तपाईलाई चाँही कस्तो लाग्यो ? यही विश्वकपमा निकै खेलाडीको भाग्य चम्किएको छ । यस मध्ये आधिकारिक रुपमा कसले के अवार्ड पाए त ?

विश्वकप विजेता : स्पेन
विश्वकप उपविजेता : नेदरल्याण्डस
तृतिय उपविजेता : जर्मनी
चौथो उपविजेता : उरुग्वे
पुरा थाहा पाउँन भित्र आउँनुहोस्

कसले पायो एडिडास गोल्डेन बल
स्पेनका डेभिड भिल्ला र नेदरल्याण्डसका वेस्ले स्नाइडरलाई उछिन्दै उरुग्वेका डिएगो फोर्लानले पाए यसपालीको एडिडास गोल्डेन बल ।

डिएगो फोर्लानको बारेमा थाहा पाउँन भित्र आउँनुहोस्

एडिडास गोल्डेन बुट
स्पेनका डेभिड भिल्ला र नेदरल्याण्डसका वेस्ले स्नाइडरले समान पाँच गोल गरे पनि तिन वटा सपोटिङ पासका कारण जर्मनीका थोमस मुलेरले एडिडास गोल्डेन बुट हात पारे ।

थोमस मुलेरको बारेमा थाहा पाउँन भित्र आउँनुहोस्
एडिडास गोल्डेन ग्लोभ्स्
खेल अबधीभरमा जम्मा दुइ गोल मात्र रोक्न नसकेका स्पेनका आइकेर क्यासिलासले एडिडास गोल्डेन ग्लोभ्स् पाएका छन् ।

आइकेर क्यासिलासको बारेमा थाहा पाउँन भित्र आउँनुहोस्
फिफा फेयर प्ले 
यस पटकको फिफा फेयर प्ले अवार्ड विश्वकप विजेता स्पेनले पाएको छ ।
बेस्ट योङ प्लेयर 
आफ्नो टिमलाई विश्वकपको तेस्रो उपविजेतासम्म पु¥याएका जर्मनीका थोमस मुलेरले विश्वकपको बेस्ट योङ प्लेयर अवार्ड पाएका छन् ।

जर्मनी अक्टोपसले देखायो, ‘जर्मनी र स्पेनमा कस्ले जित्छ ?’

“भविष्य हेर्दै अक्टोपस (फोटो- सीएनएन)”

हात हेरेर भाग्य बताउँने कु्रामा कतिको विश्वास गर्नुहुन्छ ? ज्योतिषीमा विश्वास गर्ने र नगर्नेको वादविवाद राख्ने हो भने कछुवाको आयूले पनि त्यो प्रतियोगिताको अन्त्य थाहा पाउँन सक्दैन होला । मान्छेमा यो भाग्यवाद विश्वास र अविश्वास दुबै छ । विश्वास गर्नेहरु हदै सम्मन् विश्वास गर्छन् र, नगर्नेहरु त यो कुरा भन्दा अर्को वाहियात केहि छैन भनेर कुर्लन्छन् । तर पनि भाग्यवाद र भविष्य हेर्ने कुरा सँधै चासोको बिषय रहि आएको छ । आज हुने जर्मनी र स्पेनको खेलको पनि भविष्य हेरिएको छ । कस्ले हे¥यो भविष्य सुन्नुहुन्छ ?, समुद्रमा पाउँने अक्टोपसले यो खेलको भविष्य हेरेको छ । अचम्म त यो छ कि आज सम्मन् यसले गरेको भविष्यवाणी सबै मिलेको छ

यो भविष्यवक्ता अक्टोपसको नाम हो पाउल । यसले यस अघि सर्वियासँग हुने खेलको नतिजा पनि ठ्याक्कै मिलाएको थियो । अक्टोपसले नेपाली समय अनुसार अघि दिउँसो ३ बजेतिर गरेको भविष्यवाणी जर्मन टेलिभिजनहरुले लाइभ देखाएका थिए। अनि त्यो भविष्यवाणीले देखायो- जर्मनी हार्छ, स्पेन जित्छ।
पाउल भनेको अहिले जर्मन समुद्रमा रहेको एउटा अक्टोपस हो। यसको जन्म इंगल्यान्डमा भएको थियो। दुई देशका झण्डा भएको बाकस र खानेकुरा पानीभित्र राखेपछि अक्टोपसले कुन देशको झण्डा भएको बाकसको खानेकुरा रोजेर खान्छ, त्यही देशले खेल जित्छ भन्ने मानिँदो रहेछ।
यस पटक पाउलले भविष्यवाणी गर्नुअघि नै नक्कली फोटो इन्टरनेटमा प्रचारमा आएको थियो। तर जर्मन टेलिभिजनले प्रत्यक्ष र अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय सञ्चार माध्यमहरुले समेत प्राथमिकता दिएर प्रसारण गरेको समाचारमा पाउलले स्पेनलाई नै रोजेको देखिएको छ।