A Study about Brain Cell Function

Bibliographical Information: John Horgan, “Can a single brain cell recognize Bill Clinton?”, June, 2005, Discover Magazine
Epilepsy- a disorder marked by sudden recurrent episodes of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness, or convulsions.
Neuron- a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses.
Neurons are cells in the brain which transmit nerve impulses. Many diseases such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s, and other neurological disorders could possibly be cured due to research using electrodes monitoring brain cells.
This author of this articles writes about a team of surgeons and scientists who monitor a patient’s brain cells using electrodes. The article begins with a neurosurgeon Itzhak Fried monitoring a patient named Danny. Dr. Fried puts several images of movie stars and observes how the neurons in his patient’s brain respond to these images. Dr. Fried explains that about a dozen tiny holes have been drilled into the patient’s brain, each containing an electrode to monitor various individual neurons. The electrodes placed in the patient’s brain should pinpoint the neural defects triggering various neurological disorders. Thus this new method of detecting neurological diseases should be much more helpful in locating defects in patients’ brains.

Also this new technology will help scientists understand the true inner workings of the human brain. The author postulates the question; can one single brain cell recognize a unique image. Each individual impulse released by Danny’s neurons are recorded in a room. The article explicates on an experiment Canadian neurosurgeon, Wilder Penfield used to find out more about epileptic patients. Penfield used electrical impulses to stimulate the neurons in the brain. Each specific neuron Penfield stimulated gave a different reaction. For example, the stimulation of one specific neuron caused a tingle in the left forefinger.
Also in the case of Fried’s patient the frontal lobe of the brain caused seizures, so Fried inserted most of the electrodes in that area. The article also explains of an experiment known as X-Cab which is designed to show insights on a human being’s episodic memory. The article ends by saying that human beings ignore the majority of information for cognition. The neurons in our brains are more like plastic that adapts rather than the idea that set memory cells remember only unique specific images. A diagram explaining the various types of neurons was used to help understand more about neurons.

Adult Stem Cell Research

Summary:   Stem cell research in general can save the lives of many people. Adult stem cell research in particular should be pursued because it can save lives without posing the ethical problems that embryonic stem cell research does.

Stem cell research has been one of the most popular topics in and out of the parliament building. In regards to the use of stem cell research, I am for if it is the use of adult stem cell. I am approving adult stem cell research because it does not have as many ethic problems as embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells could save the lives of many people.
Adult stem cell research is fine but embryonic stem cell research is not. Embryonic stem cell research uses stem cells from a blastcyst, which is the group of cells that will eventually grow into a living human. The soul of a human being comes into existence the moment the sperm goes into the egg. In this view, embryonic stem cell research is murder because it is the killing deliberately. Embryonic stem cell research is in a way playing God. There might be bad scientists who would uses the embryo for research even though there are mothers willing to carry the embryo. According to Popular Science, stem cells are in high amounts in baby teeth compared to the amount in other organs. Therefore, it can be seen that embryonic stem cell research is actually not very ethical and might disrupt the human society.

Stem cell research in general can save the lives of many people. Stem cells can reproduce and then specialize into almost every type of cell possible. There was an incidence when a woman got leukemia. She was saved by the stem cells found in the blood of the umbilical cord of her baby. This is just one example of how stem cell research can help save lives of people. Stem cell research can help people grow back damaged tissues in their organs. Therefore, it can be seen that stem cell research is a better and more natural way of treating diseases and thus prolongs life if used prudently.Adult stem cell research because it does not have as many ethic problems as embryonic stem cells and adult stem cell research has the potential save the lives of many people. I believe that adult stem cell research is harmless and good but embryonic stem cell research is not as great. In the future, let us hope that adult stem cell research would help make society better for everyone to live in.

Student Essay on All About Donkeys

Summary:   Describes the unique and amazing donkey. Traces its evolution back to 2800 BC. Discusses how integrated the donkey is into cultural games and activities.

A donkey is a very unique and amazing animal. It has many different qualities.
A donkey is mainly hunted for food and sport. Therefore, it has become partners to the human race as nearly as 2800 B.C. Many donkeys aren’t around just as a pet either; they are used for long hours of service and hard labor. Looking back, donkeys have made many names for themselves and their relatives: Jack, which is the male of the donkey family; Jenny, which is the female of the donkey family; Burro, whom is related to the donkey, is the Spanish name for the smaller family that survives in Mexico; a Mule, which is a cross- between a Jack (male donkey) and a Mare (female horse); and Hinny, which is a cross-between a Stallion (male horse) and a Jenny (female donkey). A Burro, a Mule and Hinny are all related to the donkey.
Donkeys belong to the Equidae Family, which is also considered the Horse Family. They originally were born from Southern and Central Asia and Africa. Now, they are bread all over the world. The high mountains of Ethiopia, Northeast Africa, the high plains of Tibet and the dry regions of Mongolia are just a few examples. Most donkeys are attracted to a hot, dry, hilly or rocky habitat, not a cool, moist, flat habitat.A regular donkey stands to be 40 inches at the shoulder and can actually stand to be about 66 inches at the shoulder. It sometimes depends on the breed of the donkey also. For example, a Sicilian donkey reaches to be about 24 inches at the shoulder while a Majorca reaches to be about 62 inches at the shoulder. White, gray, and black are the range of colors that a donkey can be seen in. They usually have a black stripe from their mane to their tail and a crosswise stripe on their shoulders. They also have a cross-shaped dorsal-and-withers stripe with a short mane and a tail that has long hair at the end of it. Long ears are also a sign to notify a donkey, because all of its relatives do not carry long ears.
When it comes to donkeys, most people see them as ignorant, stubborn and slow- moving. Well, actually they only have 1/3 of their opinion correct. Donkeys are actually very patient and hard-working. That’s why they are known as farm and pack animals. Ignorant is something that they aren’t as well. Donkeys are very smart and intelligent animals; however, they just don’t get the credit for it because of how they appear to the eyes. All donkey owners know that if people would pay attention, donkeys love to follow them and attach to kind people. Experts say that if a donkey is ill-tempered, then the blame is to be put on a human.
Hard work is a very important technique when it comes to a donkey. Even though they might be slow- moving, they can still carry heavy loads on their back. They can also out carry a work horse.
Many people don’t notice all the things that actually evolve around donkeys. There are even video games names after them that people just get so attached to that they cant put down the controller. Donkey Konga is the game and its rated number 4 in the top 10 video games for game cube.
The game and a donkey are kind of similar; it’s just people don’t give a regular donkey any attention.
Even though donkeys look ignorant and boring, they are actually very special and unique animals that people just take advantage of and don’t realize that their best friend is hiding right under their nose.

Amount of Vitamin C to Discolourize Dcpip

Summary:   In order to find out which past and present soft drinks have the most amount of vitamin c we must first react a sample of DCPIP solution with a vitamin c solution which has a known concentration. This then enables us to compare the strength of vitamin c in the soft drinks with that of a specific concentration.

The amount of vitamin c needed to decolourize a blue dye (DCPIP) by Experimenting with a variety of soft drinks.
The aim of this experiment is to investigate how much vitamin c is needed to decolourize 1cm³ of a blue dye known as DCPIP (dichlorophenolindophenol). By experimenting with an old and new variety of lemon, orange and blackcurrant soft drinks we are able to find out which contains the most vitamin c from the amount it takes to decolourize 1cm³ of DCPIP.
Vitamin c is a water soluble vitamin found in various fresh fruits and vegetables. The ‘best sources of vitamin c are citrus fruits and their juices’ . Fruits with high vitamin c content include lemons, peaches, strawberries, bananas and grapefruit. Vitamin c is involved in the repair of tissue damage and maintenance of healthy skin and blood vessels.
As vitamin c is at highest in citrus fruits I predict that the orange and lemon soft drinks will contain more vitamin c than the blackcurrant soft drink. Furthermore, as lemons are more acidic than oranges I would have to predict that the orange soft drinks will contain the most vitamin c.
The apparatus relevant to this experiment are:
Test tubes, a test tube rack, a glass rod to mix the solution, DCPIP solution, 5ml syringes and finally the various past and present soft drinks which are to be tested.
The independent variable in this experiment will be the soft drinks used as there will be a mixture of old and new flavours. This in effect will affect the dependant variable which is to measure how much soft drink is needed to decolourize DCPIP.
In order to find out which past and present soft drinks have the most amount of vitamin c we must first react a sample of DCPIP solution with a vitamin c solution which has a known concentration. This then enables us to compare the strength of vitamin c in the soft drinks with that of a specific concentration.
To ensure that this is a fair test 1cm³ of DCPIP solution is to be used each time. Also every time a drop of soft drink is added to the DCPIP solution it needs to be stirred as this will enable an even distribution of the two solutions.
  1. Draw up 1ml of DCPIP solution into a 5ml syringe.
  2. Place the solution into a test tube and put it onto the test tube rack.
  3. Then draw up 5ml of one of the soft drinks into a 5ml syringe.
  4. Then add one drop at a time of the syringe with the soft drink solution in to the DCPIP solution.
  5. Stir the solution with the glass rod to ensure it is distributed evenly.
  6. This needs to be repeated until the DCPIP solution has completely decolourized.

The volume of soft drink remaining in the syringe needs then to be subtracted from 5ml to give the volume of solution added. The results then need to be recorded onto a table as this makes it easier to see which drinks have more vitamin c in if the results are all set out together.

Furthermore, for each soft drink I would recommend that the procedure above is to be carried out three times for each one and then an average worked out.
In addition, I would suggest keeping a different test tube for each solution, so that at the end of the experiment it is easier to make a comparison of the colour variations if any.

An Essay on Bacteria

Summary:   Bacteria consist of only a single cell, but don’t let their small size and seeming simplicity fool you.

They’re an amazingly complex and fascinating group of creatures. Bacteria have been found that can live in temperatures above the boiling point and in cold that would freeze your blood. They “eat” everything from sugar and starch to sunlight, sulfur and iron. There’s even a species of bacteria–Deinococcus radiodurans–that can withstand blasts of radiation 1,000 times greater than would kill a human being.
Bacteria fall into a category of life called the Prokaryotes (pro-carry-oats). Prokaryotes’ genetic material, or DNA, is not enclosed in a cellular compartment called the nucleus. Bacteria do a lot of things. Bacteria aren’t always bad. The definition of bacteria is any of the unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms of the class Schizomycetes. These are some characteristics of bacteria. Bacteria don’t have a recognizable nucleus. Some bacteria have chlorophyll and are producers. Bacteria break down waste for energy. Those are some characteristics of bacteria.

These are the shapes of bacteria. One of the shapes is spheres which are called cocci. Another one of the shapes is rods which are called bacilli. One of the shapes is spirals which are called spirilla. Bacteria have been around for about 3.5 billion years. Like all cells, bacteria contain DNA, but the DNA in bacteria is different then other organisms, it’s arranged in a single circular chromosome while most cells have several rod shaped chromosomes. Some bacteria also have flagella. This makes the bacteria move by beating in a propeller- motion. Bacteria can be classified in many different ways.
Bacteria can be found almost anywhere on the globe, even in the most remote places, bacteria can be found. Bacteria belong to the oldest group of organisms. A 3.5 billion-year-old fossil contains ancient bacteria (Johnson 339). The tiniest organisms can be filled with bacteria. You cannot see bacteria with out microscope. People can grow bacteria to find out different things. More bacteria will grow yogurt that has more milk fat.
There are three common shapes of bacteria: spiral, rod-shaped, and spherical. The spherical shaped bacteria are usually formed in long chains. Rod-shaped bacteria looks like abstract art and spiral bacteria looks like DNA strands (Johnson 339). Even though they may look interesting, they can have an awful effect. One type of spiral shaped bacteria sometimes causes kidney and liver damage. This spiral-shaped bacterium is called Leptospira. Staphylococcus aureus is a spherical bacteria that can cause skin infections (Johnson 339).Although there are three major shapes of bacteria, there is a certain general structure to all bacterial cells. There is no nucleus in a bacterium. All of the genes of the bacterium are located on one molecule of DNA in the middle of the bacterium.

Analysis of Collected Data (yeast Population)

Summary:   Collected yeast population data was hampered by the limited space for growth that could possibly be limiting the population; conversely, the limited quantity of food could also be limiting the population of the specie; and finally the source of waste of the yeast which is toxic (as all living things have waste) which might be damaging their environment.

Analysis of Data
A limiting factor is a factor in a habitat that limits the growth of a specific population. In the case of these yeast cells, the limited space for growth could possibly be limiting the population; conversely, the limited quantity of food could also be limiting the population of the specie; and finally the source of waste of the yeast which is toxic (as all living things have waste) which might be damaging their environment. Because the yeast cells are not motile, it is very possible that they are crowding specific places too much for them to continue to grow (also because they reproduce as buds from the other living yeast cells). On the extrapolated part of my graph, the population continues to grow at a very low rate, and then the growth stuns, and begins to decline. What happened in the extrapolated part of my graph is that the yeast cells kept growing at a low rate because they were approaching their population limit and exited the exponential growth and enter the phase of transitional growth. After the transitional phase, they reach the plateau phase where the growth stops and they continue with the same number of yeast population for a while. Eventually, they begin to die off because of lack of space, lack of food, or wastes in the environment which begins to decrease the population at a low rate. In the extrapolated part of my graph, the birth rate begins a bit higher than the death rate, but once the plateau phase is reached, we know that the birth and death rate are equal. From that point, the death rate exceeds the birth rate which causes a launch in decline in population of yeast. At the beginning from hours 0-4, the yeast was in a primary phase where there was a low rate of increase mainly because of the small number of reproducers.

However, as they become to increase in population, they use the space and the food in order to grow and reproduce at a high rate during the exponential phase in hours 4-8. There is a decrease in growth rate from 8-10 which probably could have been caused by some yeast dying off from some sickness or possibly a large amount focused in a specific area which caused part of them to die off. From 10-16, the rate of increase goes back to the exponential phase where the problem from before was probably fixed. Population growth begins to slow down in 16-18 which shows signs that the population is beginning to face problems and isn’t growing as effectively. From 18-26 (including extrapolation) the rate has slowed down to the point that the birth and death rates are equal, the plateau phase, probably because the habitat is too crowded and there is a lack of food which cause some to die off. In the rest of the time, because food is not replaced and the environment contains the old wastes, the rate of deaths increases at a fairly fast rate which causes population to decrease. In conclusion, we find in this lab different phases of a population, with different growth rates, and the limit for the population has been defined for us, as the yeast begin to die off after that point. When completing this experiment, the only uncertainties available are those counting the dots in the boxes which were very similar and hard to distinguish. Also, the sizes varied and they seemed to be merged together in various occasions. In order to do this more accurately, we could use dots to represent yeast that are presented more clearly so that they can be counted correctly to come up with an accurate set of data. However, I feel like this data and graph is an excellent representation of the actual population.


Summary:   Although anesthesia related deaths and patient awareness during surgery has significantly decreased in the past two decades, it is still a main concern of doctors and medical researchers equivalently. It is believed that about two decades ago the anesthesia related death rate was one in ten thousand but today it had plummeted to one in two hundred fifty thousand.

Although anesthesia related deaths and patient awareness during surgery has significantly decreased in the past two decades, it is still a main concern of doctors and medical researchers equivalently. It is believed that about two decades ago the anesthesia related death rate was one in ten thousand but today it had plummeted to one in two hundred fifty thousand. The four main branches of anesthesia consist of: general anesthesia, conscious sedation, local anesthesia, and regional block anesthesia. Also, research has shown that pre-existing risk factors may be present in patients such as obesity, previous thrombopehbitis, type A blood, skin color

and concurrent sterilization. In addition to these risk factors, negligence in the operating room is on of the most considerable concerns of both the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation and the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Monitoring devices, such as the electroencephalograph machine, can have an immense affect on how accurately an anesthetist will be able to perform his/her duty of keeping the patient safe. Newer devices, that are capable of reading brain waves, are being tested and will be used to help clarify whether a patient is aware of the surgery or not. On the other hand, the safety of the patient’s life does not only rely on the monitoring devices used but training and clinical experience of the anesthetist conducting the procedure. Without these measures made to ensure the safety of patients, awareness and death from anesthesia would be much more common through out the medical world. With these many risk factors known to anesthetists, medical researchers and the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation will continue their engagement to improve the safety available to patients undergoing anesthesia.
One of the most common and frequently used anesthesias under major procedures is known
as general anesthesia; this type can be given through inhalation or by injection directly into the bloodstream usually through the IV that has already been connected. When a patient is under
general anesthesia he/she is entirely unconscious, the patient cannot feel, hear or recollect any part of the surgery. Even though general anesthesia makes it achievable for the patient to undergo surgeries, such as triple bypass surgery, without any pain, sensitivity or memory amid the operation. One of the numerous disadvantages of general anesthesia is that it interferes with a patient’s protective reflexes. Without these protective reflexes a patient can no longer sustain an open airway or handle secretions without aspiration, which augments the chance of obstacles during surgery. To provide general anesthesia an anesthesiologist or a certified registered nurse anesthetist, also called CRNA, will conjoin anesthetics, analgesics and muscle relaxants to ensure that the patient will remain unconscious, free of pain and suspended of movement throughout the excision. In the predicament that the patient may have a muscle twitch, the anesthetist would then supplement the IV with more anesthetics for a “deeper” anesthesia. One study of New Zealand researchers pertaining to the effects local versus general anesthesia has concluded that the usage of local anesthesia instead of general could perhaps minimize complications, deaths and awareness by approximately thirty percent.
Conscious sedation is a type of anesthesia where a patient is relieved of pain and
relatively lethargic but still sensible and capable of comprehending his/her surroundings. Besides calling it conscious sedation, other names such as monitored anesthesia, sedation analgesia ortwilight sleep are usually used as well. Additionally, the patient is able to
communicate to the physician whether or not he/she are experiencing any pressure or irritation, which is impossible under general anesthesia. After the usage of conscious sedation it is not abnormal for the patient to experience amnesia and therefore they cannot recall the procedure clearly. Anesthesiologists are not the only physicians authorized to administer conscious sedation because of its impotence; dentists, oral surgeons and Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist are capable as well. Conscious sedation is commonly used for minor operations like breast biopsy and vasectomy because patients can then have a much more accelerated recovery.
An anesthesia that countless people have come into contact with and probably have not
realized, is known as local anesthesia, or topical anesthesia. Topical anesthesia is a branch of local anesthesia that can include sunburn sprays, sore throat lozenges and other ointments that may be used on areas of the nose, throat and the eye. This type of local anesthesia lasts a considerably short time and there have been very few fatal risks associated
with it other than allergic reactions which are also infrequent. The second type is known as local injections which still are merely effective for approximately an hour. Local
injections are usually administered for minor procedures like skin biopsies, dental
reconstructions, stitching of wounds, and other various procedures. Just as in general anesthesia, the amount of time the patient remains unconscious depends on the type and amount anesthesia used. An abundance of new research states that, if possible, local anesthesia should be considered over general anesthesia because it has been associated with less risk factors, complications and deaths.
Regional anesthesia, or regional block, is essentially a type of local anesthesia because it occurs when local anesthetics are injected directly into a nervous tissue. This injection of anesthetics only numbs a certain part of the body it is distributed to, which leaves the patient conscious and in control of the rest of his/her body. Regional anesthesia also includes both epidural block, which is given through a catheter during labor, and pudendal block, a less popular type, which numbs the birth canal. In addition, spinal block may also be used during labor, where the anesthetics are injected into the spinal fluid. Spinal block is more rapid acting and lasts longer than epidural, which wears off faster and takes longer to be
effective. Although these disadvantages of epidural block exist, advantages such as the fact that the deepness of the patient’s sleep can be descended deeper by adding more anesthetic through the catheter continuously during the surgery.Whereas during spinal
block the amount of anesthesia cannot be modified to better maintain a patient that is pain free.
Under general anesthesia, a patient commonly loses his/her protective reflexes, which is the ability to handle secretions without aspiration or to be able to preserve and uphold an open airway without the help of a breathing machine. In addition to the loss of protective reflexes, a patient may also lose the ability to feel other sensations such as pain and certain pressures. During abortions, under general anesthesia, there is a greater chance of risk of cervical laceration, perforation and hemorrhage. A vast amount of abortionists prefer that their patients choose local anesthesia rather than general because the patient can interact with the abortionist and declare any pain or strange pressures she is feeling to abstain from any further serious injury. Also, another reflex that is afflicted under general anesthesia is the gag reflex, which is not affected under local anesthesia. Warren Hern, an abortionist and writer, also articulates, “It is preferable to have a patient who is comfortable but able to tell me what she is feeling and if she feels a strange new abdominal pain, then to have a patient who is quiet comfortable because she is dead.”
Patient awareness under general anesthesia occurs when the patient is conscious of their
surroundings and sensations during the surgery but cannot move or communicate this to the
surgeon because of the muscle relaxants. Any cases of patient awareness is something
momentous to anesthetists because they understand that it can be an excruciating and atrocious experience which can cause immense anguish and psychological dilemmas for both the patient and his/her family members. Usually, in emergency circumstances, awareness is more likely to occur because it is hazardous for the patient’s safety to be put in such a deep sleep with the body still being unsteady. Patient awareness presents itself because different people may affected more or less severely than others to an equal amount of anesthesia,
technical failure and/or negligence or error of the anesthetist. Although new monitoring devices, that could reduce the chance of awareness, are being analyzed and evaluated they still have not undergone the review process to be approved of. To avoid awareness, it is suggested that the patients should inform their anesthesia provider of issues such as: their current health, medications they are currently taking, whether or not they smoke or drink alcohol, medication and food allergies, any former anesthesia experience that was displeasing and the last time the patient ate.
There have been a substantial amount of studies performed that have shown that pre-existing risk factors in general anesthesia can intensify the jeopardy of the patients’ lives and mental states. Any allergies to food or medications a patient may have can contribute to complications during surgery. Smoking, current or previous drug abuse and alcohol use can also prove to be threatening because the anesthetic may perform less or more intensely in the patient’s body. The last time the patient ate is of importance because the during the procedure the patient could throw up and then the anesthetist needs to have his/her stomach pumped. Another risk factor that has not been studied eminently but still is being researched is the color of the patient’s skin. This is
because it is more unyielding to tell if a darker colored patient has cyanosis which has a dark bluish purple color that results from hypoxia. Hypoxia is the absence or near absence of oxygen in arterial blood and/or the tissues of the human body, which can be fatal.
Other than the average side effects known and the risk of immediate death from anesthesia
there is also the chance that these side effects may persist for a year or perhaps even longer than that. A professor of anesthesiology at Stanford University School of Medicine, Dr.
David Gaba states, “We don’t know whether the things we do really have an effect that lasts out to a very long period of time, but there is enough evidence to suggest it might. Even if it’s a subtle and fairly uncommon phenomenon, it could affect an awful lot of people.” (Roan 1).
Swedish researchers have shown that time spent under anesthesia related to the chance of death
one to two years after the patient’s obvious wounds have completely healed. This research of
deaths of patients’ years afterwards suggested that anesthesia is somehow connected to later
heart attacks and deaths relating to cancer. In the second research conducted, by Duke University
researchers, also had results that pointed to predominantly heart attacks and cancer a year after the surgery. Many hypothesizes have been reported such as, that anesthesia forces the extrication of stress hormones which results in the inflammation of the body responses which diminishes the immune system’s ability to protect itself from diseases.
The infrastructure of the standards relating to anesthesia initiated in 1984 at Harvard; these standards comprised of the basic building blocks of the American Society of Anesthesiologists guidelines. For example, the anesthetist is obligated to reside in the room with the patient continuously, it is also necessary that there is sufficient supervision of the oxygenation, ventilation and the blood pressure of the patient. Since then, there have been numerous guidelines and standards that have been included by the American Society of Anesthesiologiststo better ensure anesthesia patients’ safety. It is also mandatory that all facilities and hospitals administering anesthesias keep all records, perform patient screening and testing and have trained and adequate personnel in the room monitoring the patient. Different standards are applied and utilized for the diverse types of anesthesia used but the basic standards are practiced
in all kinds of anesthesia. Although ambulatory surgical centers are permitted to use local,
general or regional anesthesia, they should apply the same guidelines set by the American
Society of Anesthesiologists as hospitals do. In addition to these guidelines, the manufacturers’ of the anesthetics recommendations should also be used as guidelines to the amount that has to be taken and the safety precautions that should be used.
One of the most preventable reasons of anesthesia related death and awareness is negligence of the anesthetist in the operating room and the monitoring of the patient afterwards. Whether it is complete negligence, human error or carelessness of the lives that are put in the anesthetist’s hands, it is strongly put down by the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation. Deaths have resulted from the lack of unqualified and unauthorized
personnel providing the anesthesia and sometimes monitoring after the surgery. Facilities’
absence of emergency equipment can also be quiet fatal for the patient and deficiency of certain
alarms of the machines may interfere with the anesthetist’s ability to perform the procedure
adequately. Failure to monitor the patients afterwards and watch for any fatal side affects that other unqualified personnel may not notice is also an exceedingly careless mistake made by
anesthetists. Also, the physicians inability to resuscitate the patient or clear the airway after a patient has vomited is considered to be human error more than actual negligence. With the research that has been provided by scientists, all types of these negligent acts can be easily prevented wit proper training of all personnel, surplus amount of sufficient equipment and anesthetists being more careful of their actions and decisions made.
In the past ten to fifteen years many new steps have been taken to better guarantee the safety of the lives of patients all over the United States. Two indispensably important devices developed were the pulse oximeter and the capnograph which started being used approximately two decades ago. The pulse oximeter measures the amount of oxygen that is in the blood and is connected to the patient’s fingernail; the capnograph measures how much the patient’s lungs are expelling carbon dioxide. Advanced anesthetics being invented are more effective because they have been made to prevent allergic reactions to foods such as albumin from eggs. Anesthesia machines have been created with carbon dioxide alarms, oxygen and nitrogen flow control assembly and vaporizers. Medical training in school and in residency programs have became progressively more rigorous to help prevent any further cases of human error in the operating room. Even though the morbidity rate of anesthesia related deaths is now only one in two hundred fifty thousand, that one death can be prevented through further precautions and steps to assure the safest route for patients undergoing anesthesia for their
In conclusion, there have been many types of prevention methods used to help reduce the
death and awareness rate of anesthesia. Organizations such as, the American Society of
Anesthesiologists and the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists have been researching
and working continuously to make that rate decline to zero deaths. Local anesthesia is associated with less complications than general anesthesia, therefore it is considered to be safer to be put under local anesthesia, conscious sedation or regional anesthesia over general anytime possible. Also, patients should take their own precautions that they can to help out the anesthetists better the patient’s safety during surgery.