Ethics of Posthumous Sperm Use

Summary:   Discusses the bioethical issues regarding the use of posthumous sperm. It also details the experience of a woman who has encountered this issue.

The request for retrieval of posthumous sperm is on the rise. Usually, the request is made by the wives of the deceased husbands. Ms. Nebel-Taylor was one of those women, who after her husband’s death insisted that the couple had been hoping for a child since before the illness. Mr. Taylor was hospitalized at New York Hospital when symptoms of what seemed to be a cold turned into severe shortness of breath and ultimate lung failure.

Nebel-Taylor claims she asked her husband, who was not ill then, what she should do if faced with such a dilemma. He responded for her to perform the procedure. When he later fell into a coma on a ventilator, Nebel-Taylor contacted Dr. Schlegel of the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center. She informed him of the situation, including the couple’s efforts to have a child and Mr. Taylor’s comment on sperm retrieval. Shortly after his death in 1995, a sperm specimen was removed from Taylor’s testicle by Dr. Schlegel, who in most cases refuses to perform this procedure. Ms. Nebel-Taylor proceded with in vitro fertilization during the year 2001, unlike most other women who never actually use the retrieved sperm. However, Taylor’s sperm was not viable. The only case of a child being conceived using posthumous sperm in the US was in 1999.Currently, there is no legal precedent regarding postmortem sperm retrieval. While some doctors believe in fulfilling the wishes of the wife upon grounds that the couple had been trying for a child, others hesitate when faced with arising ethical issues. As with Ms. Nebel-Taylor, physicians may call for thorough documentation proving the husband’s wishes for a child. However, most healthy young men rarely even address this issue. Problems may also arise if the man’s family opposes sperm retrieval, or if his parents request it instead of the wife in hopes of a grandchild. The child will also have to be raised by single parent and grow to question his or her own birth. Many women, nevertheless, believe that it is their right to decide whether to raise a child in this manner. In any case, bioethicists encourage family members to present documentation clearly stating the man’s wishes for a child, similar to that required for organ donation after death.

Charles Darwin’s Theories and Their Effects

Summary:   The ways in which Charles Darwin’s theory changed humankind included its effect on religion and the extension of his theories of evolution into other realms, such as social Darwinism.

Darwin’s theory caused many changes in the world. His theory was published on his book “On the origin of species” in 1859. His theory caused many controversies among scientists and the church. From Darwin’s ideas, many thinkers based their own ideas creating social Darwinism. His theory caused hundreds of new discoveries, and it is still not completely proved today. Darwin’s idea caused great controversy, even today, changing the way people think of religion and prehistory.
Darwin’s theory was first published in 1859. His theory was mainly developed after he made many observations of birds at different islands in the Galapagos Islands. In his observation he saw many different animal species looked as if they were closely related, but noticed they were adapted to its surroundings, such as birds with big and strong beaks on islands with abundant trees which had seeds covered by hard shells. He reasoned animals more adapted to their surroundings had been naturally selected, as in they had been able to survive in their habitat as opposed to animals who were not adapted which obviously died from factors such as hunger or temperatures. This logical and interesting observation was published on his book On the Origin of Species.

Darwin’s theory’s biggest rivals were the Christians. Initially, his idea opposed the bible’s account of creation. Moreover, his theory stated that all species had been created from simpler and naturally selected species. Many people argued his theory reduced people to the level of humans and undermined belief in God and the soul. Many Christians, though, have accepted Darwin’s theory and think of it as God’s true and complex creation of the world and the human race. To this day there are still many controversies about it, and they will keep happening until it is completely proved.Darwin’s theory let thinkers come up with many ideas. Though some thinkers found good uses on his ideas, most others used them to encouraged racism. They explained how wars were not as bad after all since they weeded out weak nations leaving only stronger ones1. Some others claimed the success of the western civilization was due to the power and superiority of the white race1. Though Darwin never endorsed any of these social ideas, they led to more controversy on his theory.
Out of all the uproars and disputes his theory brought, it led to many new discoveries and inspired scientists who went out to discover more about the Human race’s past, even though until now his theory is yet to be proved. The digging of ancient fossils became well known events at that time and it made Darwin’s theory seem to be more believable. A great part of the fossils of ancient humans discovered in those times are what the modern archeology of pre-historic times is based on. But from all these fossils discovered there are some missing links between ancient human species which are what still make Darwin’s theory a controversy.
The world changes caused by Darwin changed the way of thinking of many. Even though his theories were published more than 140 years ago, many still debate over them. From the great disagreements also came great discoveries with new more advanced and more knowledgeable thinkers.

Creationism Vs. Evolutionism

Summary:   Explores differences between creationism and evolutionism. Describes each theory and draws a conclusion as to which is correct.

The scientific explanation of the creation of the universe is better known as the “Big Bang.” It is to my understanding that the “Big Bang” theory states that billions of years ago there was nothing. A small, but very intensely hot ball of pure energy then exploded, and gave way to radiation and matter. Gravity then pulled the matter outward, and thus was the beginning of the universe.
The “Big Bang” explanation is the atheistic view of the creation of the universe. The major difference between the scientific and the biblical versions is the belief that there is a Creator and that the creation was not an accident, but rather a carefully planned design. Scientists will never rationalize presence of God’s existence and that He was the Creator of the universe.
The idea that our existence and the formation of our universe was purely an accident is difficult for most people to grasp. This explanation requires more faith than it does to believe that God is responsible for these origins. The perfect construction of the universe (in which life thrives) is almost a contradiction to this belief. It is hard to comprehend that we came from a vast emptiness and that we are merely an incident of luck.There will never be a complete reconciliation between the “Big Bang” theory and the bible’s explanation, although there might be a few aspects that could possibly be agreed upon one day. Simon Peter, apostle of Jesus Christ, states clearly, “But, beloved, do not forget this one thing, that with the Lord one day is a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day” (2 Peter 3:8, Life Application Bible, New King James Version) To me this means that there is a possibility that one of God’s days was a thousand years, so therefore the earth might be really old, just as the scientific explanation says. This could mean a possible agreement on the time frames, but I still believe that there will never be a complete reconciliation between the two.
It is my personal convictions that lead me to believe that God is the creator of the universe. I firmly stand by my choice and am proud to say that I am not an accident and that I have a purpose to fulfill in this lifetime. Hank Hanegraaff of the Christian Research Institute best relates the evidence against evolutionism with five solid statements. First, the scientific community is now almost unanimous in affirming that the universe had a beginning. Secondly, the universe bears all the marks of having been “finely tuned” to make life possible. Thirdly, the evidence is mounting that life on earth simply could not and did not come into existence through natural processes in a primordial “soup.” Fourthly, the genetic code of all biological life on earth contains evidence of intelligent design. Fifthly, the fossil record continues to be an embarrassment to the Darwinian theory of evolution. (Hanegraaf, H. Evidence for Creation”. Retrieved January 6, 2005, from Christian Research Institute Web site: http://www.equip.org/free/CP0103.htm) My biggest problem with evolutionism is the question of intellect. How could it be possible for the human species to evolve from a microscopic organism in to a thinking, speaking, free-willed being who has the capacity to learn, love, and know right from wrong? Scientists will always search for the answers that they can never fully prove. There is one thing I know without a doubt; that we will never know the truth to any of the answers in this lifetime.

देशमा नै हेर्न पाइन्छ विदेशी नाटक

आजदेखि आरोहण गुरुकुलमा ‘काठमाण्डौ अन्तराष्ट्रिय नाटक महोत्सव’ सुरु भएको छ । यसको औपचारिक कार्यक्रममा के भयो, जान पाईन । तर जब म केहि साथीहरुसँग साँझमा गुरुकुल पुगे, गुरुकुलको मुहार पुरै फेरिएको थियो । पुरानो तरिकाले वर्णन गर्ने भए बेहुली झै सिंगारिएको थियो भने हुन्छ । आँगन भरि नेपाली र विदेशी अनुहारहरु मिसिएर उभिएका थिए । म पुग्दा फिनल्याण्डका एक निर्देशक आफ्नो घडि देखाउँदै नेपाली समय अनुसार उनको घडी मिलाइदिन अनुरोध गर्दै आए । समय मिलाइदिए पछि मैले उनको नाम मागें, उनले मुसुमुसु हास्दै भित्तामा झुण्डिएको पर्चामा आफ्नो नाम देखाए, ‘एडम ड्यारियस’ । मैले बधाई दिएँ । उनले नमस्ते पो गरे । सायद नमस्ते कति कति बेला गरिन्छ थाहा रहेनछ ।

उनी मात्र होइन, नेपाल र नेपालीका बारेमा जानेका वा नजानेका पन्ध्र देशबाट यो नाटक महोत्सवमा आएका रहेछन् । आज नेपाली नाटक ‘अग्नीको कथा’ देखाईयो । भोली २ मसिंरबाट २१ मसिंर सम्म नेपालबाहेक पन्ध्र वटा देशका २० वटा नाटक र मसिंर २० मा भने चर्चित नाटक ‘कर्णाली दख्खिन बग्दो छ’ का कलाकारहरुको अर्को नाटक ‘सुइना कर्णालिका’ देखाइने तालिका आरोहणले प्रकाशित गरिसकेको छ ।

कलाकार सौगात मल्ल अग्नीको कथामा झाक्रीको भुमिकामा
यदि तपाईसँग समय छ भने यो समय अवधि भरि दिनको दुइ पटक मध्यान्ह १२ मा र साँझ ५ मा गुरुकुल, पुरानो बानेश्वरमा गएर नाटकको मज्जा लिन सक्नुहुनेछ ।

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तिम्रो त्यो मौनतामा कति धेरै अर्थ छ
त्यही मेरो जीवन छ त्यही मृत्यु पनि छ.
मलाई बाच्न देउ तिम्रो वरिपरी

मेरो हरेक यात्रामा हिउँ नापरिदेउ
मा बस्ने चौतारीमा हुरी नचलाइदेउ
तिम्रो साथमा सबै-सबै ऋतु छ
त्यही मेरो जीवन छ त्यही मृत्यु पनि छ.
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हरेक साँझमा आकाश डढेको छ
हरेक बिहान झरी परेको छ
तिम्रो हासोमा सबै-सबै मौसम छ
त्यही मेरो जीवन छ त्यही मृत्यु पनि छ.
मलाई बाच्न देउ तिम्रो वरिपरी

नेपाल को सिमाना कति हो ?

नेपाल  को  सिमाना  इतिहासमा  पूर्वमा  टिस्टा  र  पश्चिममा  कांगडा  सम्म  पुगेको  थियो  भनेर  हामीहरु  किताबका  पानाहरुमा  चर्चा  गर्छौ र  आफ्ना  बिर   पुर्खाहरुमा  गौरव  गर्छौ. कैले  कहिँ  हामी  सोच्छौ  के  हाम्रा  पुर्खाहरु  त्यति  बिघ्न  बहादुर  थिया ? कसरि  लादेहोलन  खुकुरीले  बन्दुक  र  तोप  संग ?कति  मरेहोलान  तोपका  ताता  ताता  गोलिहरुले ? तर  पनि  आफ्नो  देश  र  आफ्नो  भूमिलाई  आफ्नो  अस्तित्व  सम्झेर  बचाए  , देश  रहे  हामी  रहन्छौ  वन्ने  त्यो  महान  विचार  सबैको  मनमा  एक  साथ्  कसरि  ब्युतियो  होला ?के  त्यहिँ  बिचारको  कारण  हैन हामीहरु नेपाली  भएर बाच्न पाएका?तर खोए आज हाम्रो  त्यो  नेपाल ?खोइ  हाम्रो  त्यो  भावनाहरु ?आऊ अब  जुटौ  महान   नेपाल  पाउन
नेपाल  हाम्रो  हो .हामीलाई  कसैको  एक  इन्च  जमिन  चाहिएको  छैन  र  कसैलाई  हाम्रो  एक  इन्च  जमिन  दिन चाहन्नौ भनेर  आवाज  उठाउ.साच्चै नेपाल  हाम्रो  हो  आज  पनि  पूर्व  टिस्टा  देखि  पश्चिम  कांगडा  सम्म .
आधारहरु :-
१)  सुगौली  सन्धिले  नेपालको  हीस्सा इस्ट  इंडिया कम्पनीलाई बुजाउनु पर्यो.यो  सन्धि नेपालले  इंडिया  संग  नभई   ब्रिटिश  संग  गरेको  थियो र इस्ट इंडिया कम्पनि अहिले इंडिया मा छैन . त्यसकारण   पनि  सुगौली  सन्धिमा  गुमेका  क्षेत्रहरु  नेपालले  फिर्ता  पाउनु  पर्छ .
2) अन्तरास्ट्रिय  कानुन  अनुसार   सन्धिको  कुनै  ओटा  पक्ष्य  नरहेमा  त्यो  सन्धि  स्वतः बदर  हुन्छ . इंडिया मा  इस्ट  इंडिया  कम्पनी  नरहेकाले  सुगौलीको  सन्धि  समाप्त  भएको  छ . र  सन्धि  अगाडिको  नेपाल  अबको  नेपाल  हुनु  पर्दछ .